My last dream of the night; the one I dreamed as I was waking up made me feel exceptionally good this morning. I dreamed that I was looking at my stock trading account which I have not checked in months, and of the 10 or 15 stocks I have, I noticed that that the one with the highest gains had climbed to over one billion dollars. I was excited and satisfied. I decided I would convert these numbers and graphs on a computer screen into 'real' monies and cash out. I walked over to someone to tell them my decision. I awoke feeling very wealthy, secure and capable of enacting my day dreams.
I have been planning to write about money anyway and so this provides a nice entry point. What is it? How do we relate to it? In most cases it appears in our lives simply as numbers. We witness our accounts on a balance sheet with numbers added and numbers subtracted. It's pretty incredible to realize that so much of how we think and behave can be affected by how these number seem to make us feel. Personally I have been fascinated by my ability to almost completely avoid ever touching actual cash. It's a little game I've been playing for years, just using plastic cards, computers and the occasional check that actually allows me to just write whatever number I want on it.
Doesn't this seem strange? My life is paid for by the waving of a plastic wand or my signature with a pen. In those actions magic is performed; alchemy occurs to manifest whatever I need.
I want to keep the integrity of the dream only here... the rest of this becomes an essay on money, if you want to continue reading please do so here:
To see or win money in your dream, indicates that success and prosperity is within your reach. Money represents confidence, self-worth, success, or values. You have much belief in yourself. Alternatively, dreaming about money, refers to your attitudes about love and matters of the heart. It is a common symbol for sexuality and power. In particular, finding money indicates your quest for love or for power.
To dream that you lose money, suggests that you are lacking ambition, power and self-esteem. You are experiencing unhappiness and setbacks in your waking life. You may also be feeling weak, vulnerable, and out of control in your waking life.
To give or spend money in your dream, is analogous to giving love. You are looking for love. To see others giving money away, suggests that you are feeling ignored, overlooked or neglected. Someone is not paying enough attention and showing enough affection toward you. If you are hogging or hoarding money, then it denotes insecurity or selfishness.
To dream that you have no money, indicates a fear of losing your place in the world. You are lacking the abilities needed to achieve some desired goal. If you are borrowing money in your dream, then it suggests that you are overextending your resources. You are spreading yourself too thin.
To dream that you steal money, forewarns that you are in danger. You need to be more cautious. On a positive note, the dream indicates that you are finally going after what you want in life. Alternatively, stealing money means that you are lacking love. You are desperate to be accepted.
Receiving money in dream denotes earthly prosperity. Giving of it denotes ability
to give money.
To dream of finding money, denotes small worries, but much happiness.
Changes will follow.
To pay out money, denotes misfortune.
To receive gold, great prosperity and unalloyed pleasures.
To lose money, you will experience unhappy hours in the home and affairs will appear gloomy.
To count your money and find a deficit, you will be worried in making payments.
To dream that you steal money, denotes that you are in danger and should guard your actions.
To save money, augurs wealth and comfort.
To dream that you swallow money, portends that you are likely to become mercenary.
To look upon a quantity of money, denotes that prosperity and happiness are within your reach.
To dream you find a roll of currency, and a young woman claims it, foretells you will lose in some enterprise by the interference of some female friend. The dreamer will find that he is spending his money unwisely and is living beyond his means. It is a dream of caution.
Beware lest the innocent fancies of your brain make a place for your money before payday.
Seeing or win money in your dream, symbolizes that success and prosperity is within your reach. Money may represent confidence, self-worth, success, or values. You have much belief in yourself. Alternatively, dreaming about money, refers to your attitudes about love and matters of the heart. It is frequently a symbol for sexuality and power. In particular, finding money indicates your quest for love or for power. Dreaming that you lose money means temporary unhappiness in the home and a few setbacks in your affairs. You may be feeling weak, vulnerable, and out of control in your waking life. Additionally, you may be lacking ambition, power and self-esteem. Dreaming about giving money away, is analogous to giving love. You are looking for love. Seeing others giving money away, suggests that you are feeling ignored or neglected. Someone is not paying enough attention and showing enough affection toward you. Dreaming that you have no money indicates that you have a fear of losing your place in the world or that you feel that you lack the abilities needed to achieve some desired goal. You may be overlooked or neglected by others. Dreaming that you steal money, forewarns that you are in danger and need to be cautious. On a positive note, it may mean that you are finally going after or reaching out towards attributes that you associate with things of value.
The significance money has in your waking life is reflected in your dream state. Money is a symbol of power and wealth. We often judge ourselves based on our ability to make it, save it, and spend it. First consider your own relationship with money and your current financial situation, as this dream could be simple wish-fulfilment.. As always, consider all of the accompanying details in your dream because they will help you to understand where your issues lie. Generally, money may represent those things that are most valuable to you and not necessarily cash. Dreaming that you are collecting money to pay a debt can be a warning that you are taking too many risks, and that eventually, you will have to pay for them.
To dream that you are possessed of much wealth, foretells that you will energetically nerve yourself to meet the problems of life with that force which compells success.
To see others wealthy, foretells that you will have friends who will come to your rescue in perilous times.
For a young woman to dream that she is associated with wealthy people, denotes that she will have high aspirations and will manage to enlist some one who is able to further them.
To dream that you are wealthy, indicates that you have accomplished what you set out to do. The dream represents your achievements and the rewards you reap for your hard work.
To dream that others are wealthy, suggest that you need to draw the support from those around you. Alternatively, the dream indicates that you need to watch your spending.
Dreaming that you are wealthy means vitality and zest leading to your success. Seeing others wealthy indicates that your friends will be supportive in your times of need.
To dream that you are playing a video game, represents your ability to manipulate others into doing what you want them to do. Alternatively, playing video game suggests that you are trying to escape from the problems in your real life, instead of confronting it. Consider the type of video game for additional insights.
To see or dream that you are a character in a video game, suggests that you are feeling controlled and manipulated by others. You feel that you have no control over your actions or are not taking responsibility for them.
Dreaming that you are playing a video game, represents your ability to manipulate others into doing what you want them to do. Alternatively, it suggests that you are trying to escape and not confront the stress and problems in your real life. Consider the type of video game for additional insights. Seeing or dream that you are a character in a video game, suggests that you are feeling controlled and manipulated by others. You feel that you have no control over your actions or are not taking responsibility for them.
In symbolism, numbers are not merely the expressions of quantities, but idea-forces, each with a particular character of its own. The actual digits
are, as it were, only the outer garments. All numbers are derived from the number
one (which is equivalent to the mystic, non-manifest point of no magnitude). The
farther a number is from unity, the more deeply it is involved in matter, in the
involutive process, in the ‘world’. The first ten numbers in the Greek system (or
twelve in the oriental tradition) pertain to the spirit: they are entities, archetypes
and symbols. The rest are the product of combinations of these basic numbers
(44). The Greeks were much preoccupied with the symbolism of numbers.
Pythagoras, for example, observed that ‘Everything is disposed according to the
numbers’. Plato regarded number as the essence of harmony, and harmony as the
basis of the cosmos and of man, asserting that the movements of harmony ‘are of
the same kind as the regular revolutions of our soul’ (24). The philosophy of
numbers was further developed by the Hebrews, the Gnoptics and the Cabbalists,
spreading to the alchemists as well. The same basic, universal notions are found
in oriental thought—Lao-tse, for example: ‘One becomes two; two becomes
three; and from the ternary comes one’—the new unity or new order—’as four’
(Maria Prophetissa) (32). Modern symbolic logic and the theory of groupings go
back to the idea of the quantitative as the basis for the qualitative. Pierce suggests
that the laws of nature and of the human spirit are based on these same principles,
and that they can be ordered along these same lines (24). Apart from the basic symbols of unity and multiplicity, there is another general symbolism attached to
the even numbers (expressing the negative and passive principle) and the uneven
numbers (the positive and active). Furthermore, the numerical series possesses a
symbolic dynamism which it is essential not to overlook. The idea that one engenders two and two creates three is founded upon the premiss that every
entity tends to surpass its limits, or to confront itself with its opposite. Where
there are two elements, the third appears as the union of the first two and then as
three, in turn giving rise to the fourth number as the link between the first three,
and so on (32). Next to unity and duality (expressing conflict, echo and primordial duplication), the ternary and the quaternary are the principal groupings; from
their sum comes the septenary; and from their multiplication the dodecanary.
Three is the more direct derivation of seven (since both are uneven) and four more
closely related to twelve (both being even numbers). The usual symbolisms are as
follows: The ternary represents the intellectual or spiritual order; the quaternary
the terrestrial order; the septenary the planetary and moral order; the dodecanary
the universal order. Here now are the most generally accepted symbolic meanings
of each number, which will serve as a basis for a brief summary of the psychological theory of Paneth.
Zero Non-being, mysteriously connected with unity as its opposite and its
reflection; it is symbolic of the latent and potential and is the ‘Orphic Egg’. From
the viewpoint of man in existence, it symbolizes death as the state in which the life-forces are transformed (40, 55). Because of its circular form it signifies eternity.
One Symbolic of being (40) and of the revelation to men of the spiritual
essence. It is the active principle which, broken into fragments, gives rise to
multiplicity (43), and is to be equated with the mystic Centre (7), the Irradiating
Point and the Supreme Power (44). It also stands for spiritual unity—the common basis between all beings (55). Guénon draws a distinction between unity and
one, after the Islamic mystic thinkers: unity differs from one in that it is absolute
and complete in itself, admitting neither two nor dualism. Hence, unity is the
symbol of divinity (26). One is also equated with light (49).
Two Two stands for echo, reflection, conflict and counterpoise or
contraposition; or the momentary stillness of forces in equilibrium (43); it also
corresponds to the passage of time—the line which goes from behind forward (7);
it is expressed geometrically by two points, two lines or an angle (44). It is also
symbolic of the first nucleus of matter, of nature in opposition to the creator, of
the moon as opposed to the sun (55). In all esoteric thought, two is regarded as
ominous (9): it connotes shadow (49) and the bisexuality of all things, or dualism
(represented by the basic myth of the Gemini) in the sense of the connecting-link
between the immortal and the mortal, or of the unvarying and the varying (49).
Within the mystic symbolism of landscape in megalithic culture, two is associated with the mandorla-shaped mountain, the focal point of symbolic Inversion,
forming the crucible of life and comprising the two opposite poles of good and
evil, life and death (51), Two, then, is the number associated with the Magna
Three Three symbolizes spiritual synthesis, and is the formula for the creation of each of the worlds. It represents the solution of the conflict posed by
dualism (43). It forms a half-circle comprising: birth, zenith and descent (7).
Geometrically it is expressed by three points and by the triangle (44). It is the
harmonic product of the action of unity upon duality (55). It is the number
concerned with basic principles (41), and expresses sufficiency, or the growth of
unity within itself (9). Finally, it is associated with the concepts of heaven (51)
and the Trinity.
Four Symbolic of the earth, of terrestrial space, of the human situation, of the
external, natural limits of the ‘minimum’ awareness of totality, and, finally, of
rational organization. It is equated with the square and the cube, and the cross
representing the four seasons and the points of the compass. A great many
material and spiritual forms are modelled after the quaternary (43). It is the
number associated with tangible achievement (55) and with the Elements (41). In
mystic thought, it represents the tetramorphs.
Five Symbolic of Man, health and love, and of the quintessence acting upon
matter. It comprises the four limbs of the body plus the head which controls
them, and likewise the four fingers plus the thumb (43) and the four cardinal
points together with the centre (7). The hieros gamos is signified by the number
five, since it represents the union of the principle of heaven (three) with that of
the Magna Mater (two). Geometrically, it is the pentagram, or the five-pointed
star (44). It corresponds to pentagonal symmetry, a common characteristic of
organic nature, to the golden section (as noted by the Pythagoreans) (24), and to
the five senses (55) representing the five ‘forms’ of matter.
Six Symbolic of ambivalence and equilibrium, six comprises the union of the
two triangles (of fire and water) and hence signifies the human soul. The Greeks
regarded it as a symbol of the hermaphrodite (33). It corresponds to the six
Directions of Space (two for each dimension) (7), and to the cessation of movement (since the Creation took six days). Hence it is associated with trial and effort
(37). It has also been shown to be related to virginity (50), and to the scales.
Seven Symbolic of perfect order, a complete period or cycle. It comprises the
union of the ternary and the quaternary, and hence it is endowed with exceptional
value (43). It corresponds to the seven Directions of Space (that is, the six
existential dimensions plus the centre) (7), to the seven-pointed star, to the
reconciliation of the square with the triangle by superimposing the latter upon the
former (as the sky over the earth) or by inscribing it within. It is the number
forming the basic series of musical notes, of colours and of the planetary spheres
(55), as well as of the gods corresponding to them; and also of the capital sins and
their opposing virtues (41). It also corresponds to the three-dimensional cross
(38), and, finally, it is the symbol of pain (50).
Eight The octonary, related to two squares or the octagon (44), is the intermediate form between the square (or the terrestrial order) and the circle (the eternal
order) and is, in consequence, a symbol of regeneration. By virtue of its shape, the
numeral is associated with the two interlacing serpents of the caduceus, signifying the balancing out of opposing forces or the equivalence of the spiritual power
to the natural (55). It also symbolizes—again because of its shape—the eternally
spiralling movement of the heavens (shown also by the double sigmoid line—the
sign of the infinite) (9). Because of its implications of regeneration, eight was in
the Middle Ages an emblem of the waters of baptism. Furthermore, it corresponds in mediaeval mystic cosmogony to the fixed stars of the firmament,
denoting that the planetary influences have been overcome.
Nine The triangle of the ternary, and the triplication of the triple. It is therefore a complete image of the three worlds. It is the end-limit of the numerical
series before its return to unity (43). For the Hebrews, it was the symbol of truth, being characterized by the fact that when multiplied it reproduces itself (in mystic addition) (4). In medicinal rites, it is the symbolic number par excellence, for
it represents triple synthesis, that is, the disposition on each plane of the corporal, the intellectual and the spiritual (51).
Ten Symbolic, in decimal systems, of the return to unity. In the Tetractys
(whose triangle of points—four, three, two, one—adds up to ten) it is related to
four. Symbolic also of spiritual achievement, as well as of unity in its function as
an even (or ambivalent) number or as the beginning of a new, multiple series (44).
According to some theories, ten symbolizes the totality of the universe—both
metaphysical and material—since it raises all things to unity (9). From ancient
oriental thought through the Pythagorean school and right up to St. Jerome, it was
known as the number of perfection (50).
Eleven Symbolic of transition, excess and peril and of conflict and martyrdom
(37). According to Schneider, there is an infernal character about it: since it is in
excess of the number of perfection—ten—it therefore stands for incontinence
(50); but at the same time it corresponds, like two, to the mandorla-shaped
mountain, to the focal point of symbolic Inversion and antithesis, because it is
made up of one plus one (comparable in a way with two) (51).
Twelve Symbolic of cosmic order and salvation. It corresponds to the number
of the signs of the Zodiac, and is the basis of all dodecanary groups. Linked to it
are the notions of space and time, and the wheel or circle.
Thirteen Symbolic of death and birth, of beginning afresh (37). Hence it has
Fourteen Stands for fusion and organization (37) and also for justice and
Fifteen is markedly erotic and is associated with the devil (59).
Other Numbers Each of the numbers from sixteen to twenty-two is related to
the corresponding card of the Tarot pack; and sometimes the meaning is derived
from the fusion of the symbols of the units composing it. There are two ways in
which this fusion may occur: either by mystic addition (for example,
374=3+7+4=14=1+4=5) or by succession, in which case the right-hand digit
expresses the outcome of a situation denoted by the left-hand number (so 21
expresses the reduction of a conflict—two—to its solution—unity). These numbers also possess certain meanings drawn from traditional sources and remote
from their intrinsic symbolism: 24, for example, is the sacred number in Sankhya
philosophy, and 50 is very common in Greek mythology—there were fifty
Danaides, fifty Argonauts, fifty sons of Priam and of Aegyptus, for example—as
a symbol, we would suggest, of that powerful quality of the erotic and human
which is so typical of Hellenic myths. The repetition of a given number stresses its quantitative power but detracts from its spiritual dignity. So, for example, 666
was the number of the Beast because 6 was regarded as inferior to seven (37).
When several kinds of symbolic meaning are contained within a multiple number,
the symbolism of that number is accordingly enriched and strengthened. Thus,
144 was considered very favourable because its sum was 9 (1+4+4) and because
it comprises multiples of 10 and 4 plus the quaternary itself (37). Dante, in the
Divine Comedy, has frequent recourse to the symbolism of numbers (27).
The work of Ludwig Paneth upon numbers concerns not so much symbolism
as such, but rather the normal interpretation of numbers from the psychologist’s
point of view as they appear in obsessions and dreams of average people. His
conclusions are as follows:
One rarely appears, but where it does occur it alludes to the paradisiac state
which preceded good and evil—which preceded, that is to say, dualism.
Two signifies counterpoise, or man’s experience of separate existence, with
its concomitant problems, inevitable analysis, dividing up, inner disintegration
Three stands for biological synthesis, childbirth and the solution of a conflict.
Four, as a kind of double division (two and two), no longer signifies separation (like the number two) but the orderly arrangement of what is separate.
Hence, it is a symbol of order in space and, by analogy, of every other wellordered structure. As Simonides, the Greek poet, observed: ‘It is difficult to
become a superior man, tetragonal in hand, foot and spirit, forming a perfect
Five is a number which often occurs in animate nature, and hence its triumphant growth corresponds to the burgeoning of spring. It signifies the organic
fullness of life as opposed to the rigidity of death. There is an erotic sense to it as
Six is, like two, a particularly ambiguous number: it is expressive of dualism
(2 × 3 or 3 × 2). However, it is like four in that it has a normative value as opposed
to the liberating tendencies of five and the mystic (or conflicting) character of
Seven is, like all the prime numbers, an irreducible datum, and an expression
of conflict or of a complex unity (the higher the prime number the greater the
complexity). It is sometimes associated with the moon (since 7 × 4=the 28 days
of the month).
Ten, in its graphic form as 10, is sometimes used to express marriage.
Nought, as the decimal multiplier, raises the quantitative power of a numerical symbol. A number of repeated noughts indicates a passion for grand things.
General Characteristics of Numbers Paneth draws a distinction between the
arithmetical number and the symbolic number: the former defines an object by its
quantity but says nothing about its nature, whereas the latter expresses an inner
link with the object it defines by virtue of a mystic relationship between what is
enumerated and the number itself. In arithmetic, the addition of 1 and 1 and 1
gives 3, but not triunity; in symbolism the second and third of these ones are
intrinsically different from the first because they always function within ternary
orders which establish the first term as an active element, the second as passive
and the third as neuter or consequent. Aristotle spoke of the ‘qualitative structure’ of the numbers as opposed to the amorphous character of the arithmetical
unity. Concerning the higher numbers, Paneth has this to say: ‘The multiplication
of a number simply increases its power: thus, 25 and 15 are both symbols of
eroticism. Numbers composed of two digits express a mutual relationship between the individual digits (reading from left to right). For example, 23=2 (conflict) and 3 (the outcome).’ Numbers made up of more than two digits may be
broken down and analysed in a number of different ways. For example, 338 may
equal 300 plus 2 × 19, or else 3 and 3 and 8. The dynamism and symbolic richness
of the number three is so exceptional that it cannot be over-emphasized. The
reconciling function of the third element of the ternary, we would add, may
appear in either a favourable or an adverse light. For instance, when in myths and
legends there are three brothers or sisters, three suitors, three trials, three wishes,
and so on (42), the first and second elements correspond broadly to what is
already possessed, and the third element represents the magic or miraculous
solution desired and sought after; but this third element may—as we have said—
also be negative. Thus, just as there are legends where the first and the second fail
and the third succeeds—sometimes it is the first six followed by the successful
seventh—so there are others where the inversion of the symbolism produces the
opposite result: the first two are favourable (and the second usually more so than
the first) but then comes the third which is destructive or negative. The Three
Kings, for example, offer the Infant Jesus gifts of gold, frankincense (both positive) and myrrh (negative). In almost all those myths and tales about three chalices, three chests or three rooms, the third element corresponds to death, because
of the asymmetrical division of the cycle of man’s life, composed of two parts
which are ascending (infancy-adolescence, youth-maturity) and the third and last
which is descending (old age-death). There is a Hebrew tale, called ‘True Happiness’, which exactly expresses the symbolic significance of this ‘third element’.
Here it is in Loeffler’s exemplary version: ‘A peasant and his wife, dissatisfied
with their lot, envied those who dwelt in palaces, imagining their existence to be
an unending flow of delights. While he was working in the fields, the man came across three iron chests. On the first was an inscription which said: “He who
opens me will become rich.” On the second he read: “If gold makes you happy,
open me.” On the third: “He who opens me, loses all that he possesses.” The first
chest was at once opened up and with the silver it contained the couple gave a
sumptuous banquet, purchased splendid garments and slaves. The contents of
the second chest enabled the couple to discover the luxury of refined living. But
with the opening of the third, a terrible storm destroyed all their belongings’ (38).
The symbolism bears a relationship to the asymmetrical cycle of the year (Spring—
Summer—Autumn followed by Winter) and to all symbols of the ‘superior’—
for superiority is always perilous.
Finally, there are also visual interpretations of number-symbols, derived from
the shape of the digits; but such interpretations are of a specialized nature and are
not always well-founded.
To see numbers in your dream, symbolize material gains and possessions. You are keeping close track of things. Alternatively, numbers indicate that you are being over analytical or rational. Or that you need to evaluate a situation more thoroughly. Numbers also carry much personal significance. They may represent a special date, address, age, lucky number or something meaningful and significant to only you.
To hear numbers in your dream, mean that you need to pace yourself in some situation. Or perhaps you need to calm down and take things a little slowly.
To dream of numbers, denotes that unsettled conditions in business will cause you uneasiness and dissatisfaction.
Interpreting numbers that we see in dreams may be difficult. Their meaning my be very personal, such as a reflection of financial concern or any other area of daily life represented by numbers. One way to interpret numbers is to try to see how they are specifically related to you. (E.g. If you have the number 25 in your dream. Your house number is 12 while your parent's number is 13. Together they make 25, and this dream could have been addressing issues in regard to you and your parents.) On the other hand, numbers in dreams may represent global concepts and point to collective dilemmas.
To dream that you have plenty of cash, but that it has been borrowed, portends that you will be looked upon as a worthy man, but that those who come in close contact with you will find that you are mercenary and unfeeling.
For a young woman to dream that she is spending borrowed money, foretells that she will be found out in her practice of deceit, and through this lose a prized friend.
Seeing numbers in your dream means unsettled conditions in business resulting in uneasiness and dissatisfaction. For a specific number, please see Dream Themes: Numbers.
To see plastic objects in your dream, suggests that you are being fake, artificial and/or insensitive in some way. You are not being genuine and true to yourself. Alternatively, it signifies flexibility in your way of thinking.
Seeing plastic objects in your dream, suggests that you are being fake and artificial. You are not being genuine and true to yourself.
To perform or dream of magic, suggests that you need to look at things from a different view or approach your problems from a new angle in order to successfully move forward. Alternatively, magic symbolizes creativity and wonder. Perhaps someone or something has caused you to be in awe. The dream may also be a metaphor that you or someone is "up to some trick".
To dream of black magic, implies that you have obtained your wishes and wants through underhanded tricks. It also symbolizes deception, evil and treachery.
To dream of accomplishing any design by magic, indicates pleasant surprises.
To see others practising this art, denotes profitable changes to all who have this dream.
To dream of seeing a magician, denotes much interesting travel to those concerned in the advancement of higher education, and profitable returns to the mercenary.
Magic here should not be confounded with sorcery or spiritism. If the reader so interprets, he may expect the opposite to what is here forecast to follow. True magic is the study of the higher truths of Nature.
Dreaming that you are performing magic means many pleasant surprises. It may also represent a creative mind and that events will turn out the way you had hoped for. Seeing others performing magic in your dream indicates profitable endeavors. Dreaming of black magic, represents that you have obtained your wishes and wants through underhanded tricks. It also symbolizes evil and treachery.
1. Practices that aim to use paranormal or spiritual means to influence events for selfish purposes, or for the benefit of all humanity. 2. The art of conjuring. The claimed art of altering things either by supernatural means or through knowledge of occult natural laws unknown to science. It is in contrast to science, in that science does not accept anything not subject to either direct or indirect observation, and subject to logical analysis, whereas practitioners of magic claim it is an inexplicable force beyond logic. Magic has been practised in all cultures, and utilizes ways of understanding, experiencing and influencing the world somewhat akin to those offered by religion, though it is sometimes regarded as more focused on achieving results than religious worship. Magic is often viewed with suspicion by the wider community, and is commonly practised in isolation and secrecy. Modern Western magicians generally state magic's primary purpose to be personal spiritual growth, many seeing magic ritual purely in psychological terms as a powerful means of autosuggestion and of contacting the unconscious mind. Modern perspectives on the theory of magic broadly follow two views, which also correspond closely to ancient views. The first sees magic as a result of a universal sympathy within the universe, where if something is done here a result happens somewhere else. The other view sees magic as a collaboration with spirits who cause the effect.